Tag Archives: blockchain

IoTrust Architecture

The IoTrust framework is designed by keeping security and innovation at the core. It consists of 7 main components as shown in the figure above. Each components is developed to handle specific set of tasks in the framework. The fundamental features of IoTrust project are secure bootstrapping, over the air firmware update and trust monitoring. All other services are built around these features. The IoTrust components are following.


It is a small form-factor hardware which sits on the edge of an IoT network. It consists of microcontroller, memory, input/output peripherals, communication modules etc. In the IoTrust architecture, an End-Device will be used to collect, format, and send sensor data to a server. The End-Device shall incorporate at least a LoRaWAN capable module to guarantee a set networking of features.


A Gateway provides last-mile LoRaWAN radio access to the end-devices. It is an edge component at the end of the LoRaWAN network infrastructure. A gateway is a multi-channel high performance LoRa transceiver module that can receive, process, and send several LoRa packets simultaneously using different spreading factors on various channels. Communications’ security is provided through the LoRaWAN message encryption, as defined by the protocol specification. This scheme is employed in communications to and from the End-Device and the Network Server.

Network Server

The Network Server is part of the LoRaWAN back-end infrastructure. It represents the central hub of all communications from and to LoRaWAN end-devices. It aims to hide the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer details of the LoRaWAN protocol to the components that need to communicate with end-devices. The Network Server will manage all the low-level details to guarantee secure and reliable delivery of messages to and from the LoRaWAN infrastructure.

IoT Controller

The IoT Controller plays the role of authenticator in the Authentication, Authorisation, and Accounting (AAA) architecture. The End-devices perform the bootstrapping process. This process includes an authentication and key agreement stage. Once the device successfully authenticates itself, session keys are shared with the device in order to securely perform the regular operation tasks.

Authentication Server

The AAA architecture has been proposed by standardisation organisation, such as IETF, to provide a scalable solution to security management tasks in heterogeneous IoT ecosystems, especially those employing long-range wide-area networks. The authentication server employs EAP, a flexible solution that supports several methods, with various degrees of performance
requirements for each End-Device.

IoT Agent

The IoT Agent is a MQTT client which subscribes to the topics exposed by the MQTT broker running in the Network Server. At the heart of MQTT are the MQTT broker and clients. The data sent by the end-devices is received by the Network Server over LoRaWAN, which is in turn dispatched using MQTT messages. Each message is posted in a device-specific application reception topic. IoT Agent forwards the device metadata and sensor data to the asvin platform. It does it over HTTPs using REST API end-points. The IoT Agent acts as a bridge between the Network Server and the asvin Platform

asvin Platform

It is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) to facilitate over the air security patches for IoT devices using novel decentralized and distributed technologies. The asvin Platform provides a complete solution for device, security patches and rollout management. It is comprised of 4 components.

  1. IPFS
  2. Blockchain
  3. Customer Platform
  4. Version Controller

Forcing Blockchain to be compliant with GDPR is no solution

GDPR and Blockchain

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is now enforced. This has major impacts towards Blockchain and Distributed Ledger technology. In general: these technologies are not compliant to some certain demands of the GDPR.

The World Economic Forum titles in a statement €œWill GDPR block Blockchain?€. And unfortunately, I have to agree yes, it might will.

Let me state in some words, why we need to force adjustments on GDPR regulations towards to blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. And why it€™s absurd attempting backwards fixing to force GDPR compliance on that technologies.

The core of Blockchain: Trust and Resilience

Blockchain technology and Distributed Ledgers (DLT) power is based in resilience and trust. Both is created by the distribution principle, where nodes are storing transaction in their ledger and consents between ledgers is needed to determine if the transaction is valid. As nodes location can (and should) be scattered, it€™s hard to answer the question on which geolocation data is stored and proceeded in the Blockchain network and by that which jurisdiction is to be effective.

For large public chains in case of doubt: everything and everywhere.

Additional the main principle of building trust inside the Blockchain makes it impossible to delete written transaction. Also updating existing transactions can€™t be done, since they are immutable. Therefore, the demand of GDPR on the right to delete data is not directly representable in these cryptographic principles.

The demand to erase data in GDPR is allegeable from a €œpre Blockchain€ area, where state of technology was the storage of data in relational or object based databases – or more advanced in cloud storages. Deleting data in such architectures is a feasible demand. But blockchain principle of data treatment was not on the radar, when European legislation was formulating the GDPR. Blockchain is a €œyoung€ but highly accelerating technology, started in 2008 below the €œradar€ of legislation stakeholder groups debates. And it€™s a perfect example that technology can leapfrogs ahead regulation and leaves legislators behind.

Why €œHASHING€ is not the answer for GDPR compliance

The situation is absurd. We have a powerful technology, but by basic architecture principle it€™s not compliant to the demands of the GDPR. The industries answer is €œhotfixes€ on Ledgers, where personal data is involved. One popular recommendation is not storing personal data but €œhashed€ relations in the chain. This means that no personal data is stored in the Ledger and by that the system is compliant to GDPR €“ as there is no more need to erase personal data.

But on the other hand, you need to link the Blockchain proceeded hash to data sets outside the ledger. This must be done by tying the hashes to datasets on relational or object-oriented databases. Of course, we can do €“ but basically this workaround weaken the trust and resilience level of the system. Compromising the data in the linked databases is compromising the Blockchain trust level. When the data relation has been changed the testify by €œhashed€ Blockchain records is useless. You need no Blockchain procedures for testifying the trust and integrity of data and transactions in such architectures with relational dependencies. You can remove the Blockchain part of such system but you keep the same level of trust and resilience. Blockchain in terms of trust and resilience makes no sense on such GDPR compliance workaround architecture.

We can adjust Blockchain by GDPR workarounds but will lose the fundamental advantages of this technology. Or we can adjust the GDPR.

It€™s our challenge force the right actions.

Advanced Blockchain AG entwickelt künftig gemeinsam mit digital Worx

Grandjean, Martin (2014). "La connaissance est un réseau". Les Cahiers du Numérique 10 (3): 37-54. DOI:10.3166/LCN.10.3.37-54.

Die Advanced Blockchain AG und digital worx haben eine Absichtserklärung über für eine projektbezogene Zusammenarbeit unterzeichnet. Die Advanced Blockchain AG erweitert mit der geplanten Kooperation ihr technologisches Spektrum. Mit der digital worx GmbH, einem Software-Entwickler und Dienstleister im Bereich der Industrie 4.0 sowie dem Internet der Dinge, sollen vorwiegend B2B-Projekte konzeptioniert und umgesetzt werden.

Advanced Blockchain AG erweitert mit der geplanten Kooperation ihr technologisches Spektrum. Mit der digital Worx GmbH, einem Software-Entwickler und Dienstleister im Bereich der Industrie 4.0 sowie dem Internet der Dinge, sollen vorwiegend B2B-Projekte konzeptioniert und umgesetzt werden. Während sich die Advanced Blockchain AG auf die Erstellung, Entwicklung und Anwendung der Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) für Unternehmen konzentriert, entwickelt die Digital Worx GmbH mit Sitz in Stuttgart seit Jahren erfolgreich Softwarelösungen, die auf Software Architekturen für Industry 4.0 basieren. Das Ziel der beiden Unternehmen ist die gemeinsame Forschung an und die Entwicklung von Applikationen in den Bereichen Industry 4.0 und IoT (Internet of Things). Die Anwendungen werden auf der sogenannten Distributed Ledger Technologie basieren.

€žWir sind sehr froh, dass wir mit digital worx einen kompetenten und innovativen Partner gewinnen konnten, mit dessen Unterstützung wir unsere Entwicklungen im Bereich des Internet of Things sowie der Industrie 4.0 beschleunigen und intensivieren können€œ, erklärt Michael Geike, Vorstand der Advanced Blockchain AG.

Mirko Ross, Geschäftsführer der Digital Worx GmbH, betont: €žDie Advanced Blockchain AG ist durch ihre hohe Technologiekompetenz und Vernetzung in der noch jungen DLT-Branche ein wichtiger Partner für unsere zukünftigen Forschungen und Entwicklungen. Wir erhoffen uns sehr viel von der gemeinsamen Zusammenarbeit.€œ


digital worx beschäftigt sich mit der Software-Entwicklung für namhafte Kunden aus der Industrie, öffentlicher Verwaltung, Verbänden sowie dem Handel. Das Unternehmen wurde durch die Allianz Industrie 4.0, ein vom Land Baden-Württemberg initiiertes Netzwerk, ausgezeichnet. Zudem wurde das Unternehmen sowohl vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, als auch von der Europäischen Kommission prämiert.

Die Advanced Blockchain AG ist ein börsennotierter B2B Service Provider für Blockchain Technologie. Das Unternehmen hat seinen Schwerpunkt in der Entwicklung von fortschrittlichen Distributed Ledger Technology(DLT) Lösungen der 2. Und 3. Generation für Industrie und Dienstleitungen. Zu den Hauptgeschäftsfeldern zählen Software as a Service, Beratung und Strukturierung von DLT-Projekten, For-schung und die Entwicklung von eigenen Technologien. Dabei liegt der Hauptfokus im Bereich der Anwendung und Weiterentwicklung von Tangle Technology, welche als fort-schrittlichste DLT Lösung gilt.
Momentan entwickelt das Unternehmen die peaq Platform, welche es erstmals ermöglichen soll, neue Tokens auf Basis der Tangle Technology zu kreieren und somit eine Token-Economy auf dem Tangle zu ermöglichen.